And Secretary of any head, and employee typing pool. Below nowhere. From his grandfather, she did not refuse in the sense of a unilateral divorce , though it is many people advised. As it turned out, still would not help. However, just one day. The story rather anecdotal, but rather terrible.
In Alexandra, mother Elena Alexandrovna, there were some oddities, expressed in the details. Granny arrested and taken to jail, and the investigator took her to a small room such as a theatre. She was taken to the stage in the hall were some people and hooted, and the investigator threatened to cut its year-old son to pieces if she will not give gold.
Grandma just sobbed and gold, of course, was not issued due to his absence. She was taken to a cell and told to think, and then suddenly released. And sat Elena in the typing pool, and print until the bell, the third call. The one where he was Menshikov, although my grandmother hardly been this easy. At the same time the family was notified of eviction from the apartment. This meant that we had to take an elderly mother and four sons.
However, the choice is still not there. Much later, in , my great-grandmother Alexandra unexpectedly received a certificate of rehabilitation, together with Elena Alexandrovna.
Arriving by train in birch, grandmother learned that too many exiles, and sent all the ships on the Ob river to the North, in Salekhard. Father says that his first childhood memory is connected with the loading on the ship in fine arts: he remembered the crowd of women on the pier, and among them sobbing Elena Alexandrovna. Allegedly, no one else in the crowd wept. I do not know. I've seen weeping on several occasions and his mother, and grandmother Lidiya Viktorovna, but Elena Alexandrovna - never.
Apparently, all the tears wept in So, Elena Kavelmaher with his mother and four-year-old son in October were in Salekhard, the town near the mouth of the Ob river. No farther. Now, this city - centre Yamalo-Nenets region, there trains, ships sailing the Northern sea route, take out the forest in the district produce oil, and the life is more or less goes.
The city was so quiet and provincial, as the town name was difficult. There was a terrible winter of There was nothing to her grandmother to work will not take - exile, even with non-Russian last name The prisoners died from overwork, but they at least had to somehow feed. For exiles turned out the opposite - not found a job, so die of starvation, none of you even care not formally required. But what kind of work could be in Salekhard? We lived in a hut, and then in the dugout is there at least the temperature was above zero. Four-year-old father became seriously ill from the cold and malnutrition, survived by a miracle - grandmother gave it to death in a crowded, ice hospital and came out herself.
Interestingly arranged the human psyche! But then it turned out that the father still remembers lying in the barracks under a blanket, and from the ceiling were falling snowflakes. At this time Elena with Alexandra somehow earned In the end, oddly enough, they saved the Church metric grandmother, where it was said that her name Kolobashkin and she baptized into Orthodoxy.
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Securities was the sea, and the ability to print was then far more rare than it is now. Whether vodka bored him, whether taste more like Cologne Come The centre of the Pechora coal basin of the Komi Republic - do not Sochi, although somewhat closer to Europe than Salekhard. Still, in Vorkuta coal mined, and there exiles easier. My grandfather hired for the eternal Russian currency - vodka , a Nenets reindeer sleds with and early winter of moved the family through the Northern Urals.
Ironically, this trip was not particularly difficult, in any case, much simpler and cheaper than up the Ob on the boat, and then, with many direct by rail.
What does vorkuta mean?
In Vorkuta Kavelmahery settled in the village of Rudnik accent for some reason on the first syllable. Actually, to settle was nowhere more - in fact it's not a village, and the old town district. Then, by the way, and the only one. Since it began, the city of Vorkuta, received its name after the river, which was Mine. The town is situated North of the Arctic circle and around the tundra, but we should not be perceived as smooth expanse of the plain.
Now, of course, piles of mines moved far out of town and area disappeared from the eyes. At the same time the city was surrounded by all the camps, each shaft acting was about twenty-five was individual camp sites, and it turned out that the whole city was one big area. Trains brought in Vorkutlag prisoners, and took away the coal. What is coal mines, drifts and slaughter everyone knows, but sees them more often as the type of underground tunnels.
In fact, in the bottom is impossible to stand at full height, a narrow passage in the ground with incredibly stale air filled with coal dust. Moreover, the cons - what them, enemies of the people, sorry? However, the spare had when the war was lost Donbass and the Pechora coal basin is the sole supplier of coal, it is extremely necessary for the country. But it was tomorrow, but today And it is even exile meant good rations, the child - a kindergarten, a family - a decent apartment in a heated hut with which the coal Vorkuta no interruptions, so it is with fuel.
However, in the dugout had to live, but only for the couple of months after arrival. My grandfather worked in geological control, and all was good. But tomorrow was, again, the war. Around Vorkuta, a forest was not Then I was wiser and knew that my grandfather, differing iron Constitution could survive the lumber which he was , and for Elena Alexandrovna with an eight-year-old son and mother shestidesyatidvuhletney it was certain death.
My father told me that they have collected things, and he burned his toy airplane, because he does not fit in a suitcase. You can imagine the terrible psychological atmosphere for the fine details of an eight-year-old toy is burned. Stress is with your hands. It would seem - and could give them to friends, and leave the apartment with the hope of returning Father more than half a century later recalled that the plane was made of cardboard, painted with silver paint, with large red stars. But the family had saved the same Church metric with which my grandmother, again, went to the head of the local NKVD.
As for Orthodoxy, I deliberately took the quotes - grandmother didn't believe and never in my memory did not go to Church. Yes, and great-grandmother, oddly enough, too, although she was the daughter of Archimandrite Vasily Rudnev. Even taking into account the subordination of the Church in the Russian Empire, it is amazing how quickly trampled Soviet regime Russian Orthodox However, grandmother, you can understand - her first husband belonged to the Lutheran religion, the second - to the Jews, and while both were absolute atheist.
Not one Orthodoxy trampled Soviet regime. In General, the way it was, but with one exception - the terrible winter of died masses. Outside the city were dug several trenches, and there was a sleigh pile of corpses. My father told me that he once met such a sledge, and the carrier became ill from hunger, and he asked the boy of nine to help bring the horse to the ditches.
Father helped. All the corpses, of course, were stripped, but no tags on legs were dumped in mass graves, and all. Indeed, no one was going to dig up and to identify - and why more were needed these tags?.. Father said that the driver asked him to help unload these corpses, but he was so tired on the way up the mountain, he refused. There is no fear in respect of dead bodies in the nine-year-old child was no longer, and asked the driver for help was quite in order.
We can now plenty to gasp and moan about the harmful effects on the child's psyche mountains bare of frozen bodies, but they were Vorkuta weekdays. The bodies were taken, they are not concealing anything from above. And not only dead and not only in Periodically, house searches took place, including the exiles. A famine in was unforgettable. This was the only year when both father and grandmother were crying from hunger - it was so painful. To maintain the life of the soldering missing, but subjectively these sparing grams of fresh bread and slippery read about the siege of Leningrad?
Having suffered cruelly from hunger woman typist with sedentary work and a small child, and what were the prisoners to work in the mine at a much smaller ration? That killed thousands. And in subsequent years was not enough food, so that his father since childhood constantly hunted.
And eggs collected.
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And in the spring and autumn migration takes place partridges, and nights half Vorkuta appeared under a high-voltage line - in-the-dark birds in a large number of broken wires. My father told me about this spectacle of the night, mass flying partridges, with the camp towers shining the spotlight, under the supports of power transmission - crowds of hungry people under their feet turn not less hungry Fox, grab partridges, people they are selected It became easier in , when the Ural somehow earned evacuated industry and it needed coal, and the Pechora coal basin after the loss of Donbass was the only one in the country.
And yet, let me explain: the so-called supplies to the USSR from England and America, military equipment, raw materials and products. However, after Stalin for it refused to pay, but Khrushchev still had.
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And can be, and is still not settled From the front to Vorkuta sometimes brought jackets for prisoners. Pierced by bullets, covered with blood And despite the abundance of children NKVD-schnick, the atmosphere in the school was such that in ten years my father remembered only one!
This ultimately bore fruit in terms of education of the father. But the war because of the constant need, and then habit hunting far in tundra used to go away for a few days , he gave up school and learn is not that bad and very bad. Time has done an outstanding anyone, but Moses Naumovich stood out even on this background. Moses Naumovich was born December 30, in Moscow.